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COLD WAR ANALYSIS BY VINITA MALIK
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BACKGROUND Since the end of the First World War, the United States had emerged as the strongest power in the world.After the Second World War, her power had grown still more compared with the European powers who dominated the world for centuries. . This was both in spheres of economic & military strength. After US acquired atom bomb, its power further strengthened . Next to the United States the mightiest power in the world after the Second World War was Soviet Union. It had suffered more than any other country in the war. However, in spite of these losses, her power and prestige had increased
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War Il between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) EMERGENCE OF 2 SUPER POWER COLD WAR WORLD DIVIDED INTO TWO BLOC DIPLOMATIC WAR TENSION PERIOD
COLD WAR EASTERN BLOC WESTERN BLOC IRON CURTAIN SWEDEN NET FRANCE TRIA ALY SPAIN AL TURKEY
NATO is an alliance of 28 countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. It includes Canada, the United States, Turkey and most members of the European Union . NATO's members: . Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. .Each member designates an ambassador to NATO. It supplies needed officials to serve on NATO committees. It will send the appropriate official to discuss NATO business. That includes its President, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, or head
Proxy Wars Proxy Wars Wars between opposing superpowers where they use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly . 1947 to 1989/1991 . It was An Era - No Fixed Time Why Cold? No Direct fighting between the powers - Only proxy wars Mainly in Korea, Vietnam And Afghanistan
FEATURES OF COLD WAR Ideological Differences - USA had Capitalist - Soviet Union had Communist Political Distrust - No country used to believe others easily Arms Race - USA and USSR spent a lot on military Espionage Psychological Warfare - Both Wanted to establish themselves
Disagreements over Germany Ideological differences Crisis over Korea s5 Pyonyang ul 80 The Nuclear Arms Race Superpower foreign policy
Brinkmanship Brinkmanship (also brinksmanship) is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labour relations, and (in contemporary settings) military strategy involving the threat of nuclear weapons, and high-stakes litigation. During the Cold War, the threat of nuclear force was often used as such an escalating measure Nuclear Capability
THE BEGINNING OF COLD WAR 1917 Bolshevik Revolution or Russian Revolution (To Know About it in detail you can join the course on World History) . The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years - between 1918 and 1921.The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks. These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Collectively, they were known as the Whites ( Capitalists ) while the Bolsheviks were known as the Reds ( Communists) 1922 End of Civil War - USSR established 933 Diplomatic Refations established between USA and USSR-Joseph Stalin
. USSR and USA were allies against Axis Powers in WW2 After I945 USSR tried to exert communist influence throughout central and eastern Europe as a buffer against Germany USA tried to exert its influence in war torn France, West Germany, Japan and Korea and tried to set up capitalism supporting leaders
Iron Curtain, the political, military, and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union after World War ll to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact with the West and other noncommunist areas. The term Iron Curtain had been in occasional and varied use as a metaphor since the 19th century, but it came to prominence only after it was used by the former British prime minister Winston Churchill in a speech at Fulton, Missouri, U.S., on March 5, 1946, when he said of the communist states, "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."
. The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and further developed on July 12, 1948, when he pledged to contain threats to Greece and Turkey To support other nations against Communism e USA propped up many anti communist regimes throughout the world
IT'S YOUR CHOICE: WHERE DO YOU DRAW THE LINE AGAINST COMMUNIST AGGRESSION?
The Berlin Blockade was an attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to Franee, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian- occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much- needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War ll, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.
Blockade of one year e Germany officially split into two parts in 1949
NOW THE FIGHT WAS CLEAR
KOREAN WAR 1950 53 . Most Important Event ISt Proxy War Korea had come under Japanese rule in 1910.After Japan's defeat in the Second World War, she was divided into two zones, the northern zone under Soviet occupation and the southerr zone under American occupation, to bring about the surrender of Japanese troops . The aim was to make Korea an independent state . However, as in the case of Germany in Europe, two different governments in Korea were formed in 1948.
Rhee was an anticommunist and wanted an alliance with Chiang KaiShek to prevent the spread of communism. . Both the states organized their armies and there were frequent clashes between them. In June 1950 war broke out between North and South Korea. Chinese revolution had already taken place & United States feared further expansion of communism in this area. The United States sent troops to support South Korea in the war. These troops fought as the troops of the United Nations because the Security Council of the United Nations had passed a resolution condemning North Korea & asked members of the United Nations to aid South Korea
. After the entry of the American forces in the war, the Chinese forces also entered the war and the situation took a very serious turn. There was a real danger of another world war breaking out, as by this time Soviet Union also had acquired atomic bombs. However, though the war in Korea raged for three years, it did not turn into a world war.The armistice was signed in 1953 Korea remained divided into two separate states
. Space Race Initially USSR hold But then USA landed on Moon
. 1956 - Hungarian Revolution Crushed by Soviets . 1956 Suez Crisis 1950s - War in Indo China region
5 7 Port Said ISRAEL Suez Canal 2 Ismalia JORDAN Cairo 1EGYPT 2 Gulf of Suez Eilat SINAI PENINSULA British paratroops French paratroops Gulf of Aqaba Israeli paratroops Suez Canal Zone N Egyptian blockade DAl Tor 4 6 Israeli troop movements Sharm al-Sheikh
NON ALIGNED COUNTRIES
The Three World Order, 1947-1991 Sowet Union USSR United States Chin Congo O Angola Third Wond t
SINO-SOVIET SPLIT The Sino-Soviet split (1956-1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism-Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War
1970S- LITTLE DE-ESCALATION Improved USA - China Relations in 1972 . D tente Between USA and USSR .SALT I in 1973 - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
1980S e Olympics Boycotted Millitary Expenditure by USA .Star Wars . The United States launched a programme of developing new and even more deadly eapons, popularly known as the Star Wars . These weapons would have meant taking the conflict into outer space and launching attacks from there. However, the world situation began to improve after the mid 1980s and by the end of the 1980s it could be said with much certainty that the era of Cold War had came to an end.
REFORMS Glasnost Openness of economy Freedom of Speech Easing Of Media Censorship Earlier Records Declassified
. Iron curtain was raised Peaceful Revolution by Some states for independence 1989 - Berlin Wall Fell 1990 East and West Germany Were United . 1985 to 1991 - USA and USSR talks
. All the former communist countries face severe economic and social problems. Poverty and unemployment were rampant. If not dealt effectively there was fear of right-wing backlash which would be worse than the communist rule. . A large number of nuclear weapons were still present in the region and fear was that in a desperate need to raise money Russia might sell these to 'unsuitable' governments With the fall of communism relations between the USA, western Europe, Japan and other western allies were affected. With no need to stand firm against communism, new disputes among them started to crop up. Trade dispute started to emerge between the USA and Japan. During the war in Bosnia the USA refused to provide troops for UN peacekeeping which strained its relations with eastern European nations. Cold war being over third world countries were no longer have to walk on a tight rope in term of foreign relations and diplomacy